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The Cost of a Good Bonsai Soil Mix

We all like a little grumble. British are particularly renowned for our grumbling prowess. Mention the weather and see where that goes. The cost of a good bonsai soil mix?

We all like to grumble about the price of things too. ” I remember when …..” that sort of thing. I have a lovely old mate who pointed out a fairly average bonsai tree for sale on our bench cost more than his first house. On investigation that was about 65 years prior to our discussion. It’s all relative though. My dad likes to point out his first house cost him what is now the price of a special pair of handmade shoes but then he was earning 2/6 a week.

Money is not worth what it was and there is nothing we can do about that. However as age advances it does become difficult to deal with. I was discussing the minimum wage with my old fella the other day and he nearly passed out at the cost.

As a seller of products we constantly have to wrestle with making enough profit to keep the wheels on whilst not pricing ourselves out of the market. It’s a tough one and we (at KB) will not be able to retire on the proceeds. We all know about the crisis in high street retail and online retail is absolutely no better. They say the costs are less for online sellers but that’s utter bull crap.

There is rarely a day goes by that I don’t get bitch slapped by someone complaining about the cost of stuff. It goes with the territory but that does not mean it does not hurt. It really digs deep and the lack of respect and understanding is deeply offensive.

The real problem is that everything looks quite simple from the outside. Creating a bonsai tree looks like a simple thing to the uninitiated. We know better of course. There is nothing more enlightening than to walk a mile in another man’s shoes.

I get a lot of complaints about the price of what we commonly call soil. Bonsai growing media, or soil, is a complex business as I outlined here Choosing Soil For Bonsai Trees. The time, effort and work, not to mention transportation, warehousing, mixing and packaging that goes into these products is simply beyond the comprehension of most folk who are not directly involved.

Processed clay aggregates of many different kinds are a large part of most bonsai growing media. Take a look at this incredible video. Consider the cost of build, running, maintaining and feeding this absolute monster. 90% of a good bonsai soil mix will have come from similar plants around the world.

Those products have to be bought to one place and then processed, blended, packaged and finally packed for shipping direct to your door. How convenient is that? I reckon the price of these things is incredibly low. Many products are cheaper than 20 years ago and don’t forget 1/5 of the cost goes onto the Westminster gravy train.

I am very grateful to companies like the one shown in this video. Their hard work, dedication and long term investment makes our silly penchant for little trees possible. Next time you pick up a bag of soil product remember this video.


Missing The Point – Re-potting Bonsai

When you make that first fateful move and obtain a ‘Bonsai tree’ you take the first step on a journey that just might last the rest of your life. It matters little that your first plant is most likely not bonsai at all. Mine was a sycamore seedling I lifted out of leaf litter in the woods on a dog walk and planted in a plastic plant pot. It could be a cheap poor quality ‘bonsai’ you buy in a garden centre, something you are given as a gift or inherit. The quality is perceived and matters little in our ignorant state of the time. To be clear I did not know what a bonsai tree even was (it’s a partly redundant phrase anyway) and had never even heard the phrase. I had never seen a bonsai tree in any form but I always loved trees and figured it would be nice to own a little one.

Some time later I bought a house that came with a ‘Koi pond’, another redundant phrase seeing as koi pretty much live in any pond. Having been an avid fish keeper since winning a goldfish for tossing a ping-pong ball into a bowl at the traveling fare back in the early seventies my new pond was welcome. You don’t spend much time around koi keeping before running into bonsai trees. Most are normally accompanied by shockingly naff attempts at Japanese gardening. Chinese pagodas, concrete Buddahs, deer scarers and so much tawdry, kitsch and tragic gimcrack it’s hard to know wether one should shit or go blind.

So, from the point I knew what a ‘Bonsai Tree’ was it all started to get a bit pear shaped. Ask anybody what ‘bonsai’ means and you will be regaled with the trite platitude about trees in trays / pots etc’. The emphasis is almost entirely on the pot. Surely it’s the ‘tree’ bit we need to focus on? However for the few of us that managed to cut through all the crap and actually get our arms around this thing the word itself is irrelevant. It may have taken me thirty years of dedicated work but I now know I don’t have ‘bonsai trees’ in fact I just have TREES. Plain simple little trees that I keep in various pots (most of which are NOT shallow, or dishes or even ceramic). That thirty years was full and busy! The crazy things I have done have impacted upon everyone close to me for most of their lives, caused me to quit my job, sell everything I ever loved and put me in hospital with life itself hanging by a thread.

I don’t suggest for a minute that, in order to be good at bonsai, everyone must do the same. However this IS a long journey fraught with danger and perils. You would assume that in this ‘Information age’ learning to grow trees and keep them small would be easy. After all just look at the volume of content out there. I always had a passion for learning new things and today what could be simpler. I recently learned to TIG weld, sure I need to practice and work at it but after about an hour I knew what I needed to buy and once it arrived I knew how to set everything up and within minutes I was sticking bits of scrap metal together.

I previously taught myself how to operate a manual metal turning lathe. Another project required knowing how to work with Marmorino (lime plaster). I learned to spray two pack paint, build a sandblaster and repair our cooker. I mastered the arcane electrical systems of British motorcycles and found out how to apply/repair the patina on my pre war truck. There is not a week goes by that I don’t have to learn something new and these days it’s all at my finger tips. What you are staring at now has incredible potential for life enhancement. Of course a modicum of intelligence and common sense are required in order to use this powerful tool. Sadly for lots of people it just leaves them looking like a tool swinging in the breeze.

Just using the word ‘bonsai’ implies that our little trees are something special, something apart or removed from their wild and unfettered relatives. Right there it all went tragically wrong and we didn’t even get to the second word. As soon as the ‘B’ word is applied to a plant folk of lesser experience totally loose their minds and all sense of reality. The word bonsai is a little magnet that attracts so many myths, hearsay, conjecture and in my working class parlance, bullshit that, in the hands of the uninitiated 90% of these little plants are entirely doomed to die a sad and lingering death. Let’s focus on the TREE bit folks!

As a trained horticulturalist and life long gardener and grower it became obvious to me very quickly that a bonsai tree was just a plant in a pot like any other. The interest and unusual appearance is created by some rudimentary shaping and the tree is kept small only by pruning. Returned to the ground any bonsai tree will quickly return to it’s natural state. Like any potted plant with limited resources at it’s disposal a bonsai tree relies upon it’s owner for it’s essential needs. These needs are simple, light, air and water. It really is SO simple that, after thirty years doing this, I am increasingly perplexed and disillusioned at why folk are struggling with such a simple thing. One guess is that so many folk have become entirely removed from nature, the rhythm of the seasons and all the wonders of life outside.

I would suggest the word bonsai ought to indicate the process of making a small tree. The successful result we can just call a tree. That saves a lot of people a lot of confusion. A fabricator might build you some nice iron gates but if you called them a fabrication, and not gates, some people might be confused because the word has several connotations. The word gates is quite specific as is the word tree. In the minds of the un-initiated bonsai is the same.

So, here’s the thing. What’s the big deal with re-potting? 99% of the questions I receive concern re-potting. Before someone buys a tree they want to know when to re-pot. After they buy a tree they want to know when to re-pot. I see people re-potting new trees they just got, re-potting out of season in fact, looks to me like the bonsai community, and I use the term lightly, is totally and utterly obsessed with re-potting to the exclusion of all else.

As a motor-head please allow me a motoring analogy. The last time you bought a car, once you got it  home what was the first thing you did? I am betting it was not to go outside and remove the engine right?* Assuming you are the kind of person that could actually do that successfully I would guess that before you did you would check how it ran. Most folk buying a motor would buy a fairly decent one that would do a good job. Some folk like me would seek out the opposite because we like a project but that’s an entirely different thing.

So why on God’s green earth would you buy a bonsai tree and instantly assume it needs to be re-potted? Most bonsai trees are killed by over-work. In my estimation the number of bonsai trees sold in the UK that survive a ten year period are a single figure percentage. A lot of those die because they are literally pruned to death, weakened as a result. A lot die because of inappropriate horticultural care, like keeping them indoors or in other inappropriate situations. A few are poisoned with fertilisers and other snake oil concoctions. But, the lions share are killed by re-potting.

You would assume this is the exclusive domain of the novice who, on a good day I could excuse for their inexperienced fumblings and daft questions. We all have to kill a few trees, that’s the price of an education. But, sadly this issue seems to afflict even some of those with decades of experience. In that case it’s rare that trees actually end up dead but inappropriate re-potting is responsible for a lot of beautiful old bonsai trees being turned into raw material as they end up with juvenile vigour and loose their maturity.

I assume folk must read that a bonsai tree needs a free draining soil. Most bonsai trees you buy do not have a free draining soil, at least not in the estimation of many folk who are most likely not experienced enough to make that judgement. Trouble is, if you put a tree into a free draining soil mix how long will that last? Even the most open growing medium will close down after a while simply because it’s pore spaces are filled with pesky root. So you buy a tree and when you water it does not drop right out the bottom of the pot, it must need re-potting right? Perhaps a responsible person has spent several years making sure your new tree has a good strong and vibrant root system. Not always the case but mostly so. Going out and throwing that work away on an ignorant mis-understanding is criminal.

A bonsai tree, just re-potted in the right way, allows water to drop through the soil pretty quickly. However after a year or two that’s not going to be the case simply because the pot is filling with root, as it should be. So, then it takes a little longer to thoroughly wet the rootball when you water. On the other hand it can remain quite wet if it’s raining so then what? I have explained this so many times i just want to go chop my own head off. I have made videos and written dozens of times and explained it in demo’s and a thousand telephone conversations.

Bonsai trees go through phases of development. Initially we are looking for explosive rampant growth in order to build a powerful trunk. Subsequently we have to build primary branching, secondary branching and finally mature ramification. It is NOT possible to move onto any one of these phases before the proceeding step is complete. Each stage has it’s own technique too and using the wrong one won’t work. Anyone ever seen a trunk double in size where a tree is planted in a bonsai pot (in the UK)? Not in less than forty years you have not. In order to grow a big trunk you need a lot of growth. In nature a big tree carries a LOT of branching and foliage. I wrote about that at length here  Upside Down Bonsai

That last phase of bonsai development is not understood by many folk. Remember when you were young you had boundless energy and strength to do most anything. Later on in life that started to fade but then you were a little smarter and so managed to compensate and do more with less. That is how we mature a bonsai tree. The whole process and point of ‘bonsai’ is to bring a tree to maturity in order to create a miniature characterisation of the venerable old soldiers that touch our souls. In the early stages we have to tolerate boundless explosive growth but the WHOLE object of the exercise is to bring a tree to a mature and stable place of balance exactly as happens in the trees wild natural home.

Trees in nature follow this path. When young they grow away like weeds exploding in every direction. Later on they become larger, heavy and tall. After decades they will begin to bump up against the law of scarcity. Limited resources in the form of water, sunlight and nutrients coupled with the effects of weather and competition mean that growth has to slow and mature. Rather than making huge straight and soft vulnerable new growth, a tree will begin to create a more robust, long lived and ultimately efficient fine ramification that is very good at what it does and looks beautiful to our eyes.

The law of scarcity or the scarcity principle has two sides, one being that all resources are limited, the other side is that demand is infinite. Limited resources are one half of the fundamental problem of scarcity that has plagued humanity since the beginning of time. The other half of the scarcity problem is unlimited wants and needs. The phrase limited resources means that the quantities of productive resources available are finite. That is what creates those beautiful old and mature trees that inspired us to go out and develop the whole idea of bonsai in the first place. Trees mature once they reach a point at which the resources available to them are no longer sufficient to fuel their infinite demand for increase. At that point a more careful and measured use of those resources means a stable and mature growth pattern that allows for the best return for energy expended.

The problem with bonsai is that most folk are obsessed with re-potting to the point where a tree never manages to mature. Free draining soil, hard pruning, excess fertilisers, too much water and inappropriate positioning will keep a tree young, possibly vigorous and trying it’s best to expand rapidly. That coupled with the owners immaturity, lack of patience and inexperience mean a tree can never truly mature and actually become bonsai. All clever wiring and pruning do is make a tree ‘look’ like bonsai. Actual bonsai is a mature and harmoniously balanced tree that is at one with nature and it’s surroundings and has reached perfect equilibrium based on the law of scarcity. I would call the process of achieving that state ‘bonsai’. The successful net result I would call a TREE.

This all feeds into so much of what goes on in bonsai, most of which is entirely unnatural and ultimately harmful to trees. How many times have you seen a discussion about how to reduce leaf or needle size. A mature and balanced bonsai tree will not have overly large leaves. If it’s mature it will have good dense ramification and a stable root system which interprets as nicely formed leaves. If you are trying to make bonsai from an Indian bean tree (Catalpa) this won’t work but the endeavour was doomed from the start.

If your pine tree grows big needles it’s because it needs them at this stage in it’s life. Inducing stress by doing something dastardly is not going to help, in fact it’s likely to severely upset your tree and retard it’s progress. Young pines have big needles. To get small needles you have to mature the tree and that takes a long time assuming you know what you are doing which many folk do not. Kids have excess energy. Gagging them and stapling them to a wall by their clothes may well arrest the annoying and excessive motions about the house for a while but it will not actually turn them into your venerable grandad. As soon as they get free again it’ s probably going to be worse than before.

Real bonsai technique is the art of marshalling natural forces that bear upon a tree to bring it to maturity. As in nature so in bonsai. It’s a finely balanced art form. Mastering this is a lifetimes work. Constant obsession with repotting bonsai, free draining soil, obsessive fertilising, unrestrained pruning and unnatural meddling is feckin’ stupid, don’t do it. Learn your horticulture folks!


Should I repot this bonsai tree?

This little tree is so far off kilter it’s in mortal danger. Will repotting help?

A mature Chinese elm bonsai tree. Repotting bonsai

This little elm started off like the one above. It took about 6 years to reach this relatively mature and balanced state and only two repots in that time.

*I actually did that, aged 16, I took the engine out of my first motorcycle the day after I bought it. Therefore I do get the re-potting obsession but I was an ignorant impetuous spotty teenager with a dangerously inquisitive mind and a box of spanners.

Bitchin-n-Moanin Again

So, anybody that knows me, or our business will know we are always busy. Not busy in the sense most of Britain at work is busy. I don’t consider 2 hours work followed by three hours of needless paperwork to be busy. We have one of the lowest outputs per head of working population in the developed world but don’t even get me started…. So we ARE busy, in the sweating my arse off sense. Myself and Richard literally move about 1-4 tons of stuff a day each. Moving between our warehouse and getting stuff packed is HARD work and for a fat middle aged bloke that likes a stogie and a beer that’s exhausting.

Add to that the stress of running a business means I only sleep about three nights a week. That nearly killed me a few years ago and I was rushed to hospital apparently 3/4 dead. Now it’s happening all over again and this current shut down of most everything is not helping. Since the governments actions our order volume has increased about 100%. Soon we too may have to shut down for the simple reason we cannot get any more boxes. All our usual suppliers are shut and there is an EU wide shortage, believe it or not. I’m wondering if I might not get a taste for loafing about and make it permanent. What do you think?

Anyway, sick of people bitching about not getting their goods fast enough. Kaizen Bonsai consists of aforesaid middle aged fat bloke, a pension aged wife, a strapping young son in law and a daughter going on maternity leave next week who looks like she was blown up with a tyre pump. This ragtag little family get out between 60 and 90 parcels in an 8 hour day. My accountant reckons it’s physically impossible for four people to turn over what we do but we HAVE done it for over 15 years now and so I reckon he’s wrong. So to all the complainers, government advice is that you go jump off a bridge and I say amen to that.

Just so you know I am not bullshitting here is our collection at 4pm today. We started work at 9am. That’s 67 parcels and about half as many (small ones) again that already went by post. If anyone would like to send me a medal I will happily send a signed photo of me wearing it by return.


Bonsai orders being dispatched

That’s social distancing in action.

Table Sale !

Seeing as everyone has been shut down for the foreseeable future there are no car boots or bonsai bargain basement, knock it out cheap events going on I figured we could host a bonsai table sale. However that’s not what you think. In fact it is just a special offer sale of display tables. It’s intrinsically against my genetic programming to offer discounts but in this case, through gritted teeth I have to clear out this stuff. Our warehouse looks like some crazy cartoon building that is all distended to the point of exploding. Mr Creosote if you will. I probably paid too much for some of these and now have to take the hit but, such is life in business.

These are a genuine 20% right off the top discount. There are only one or two items of each and the discount is only online for a short time so don’t procrastinate.

Click here to see products







44,000 Hours Well Spent – Growing Bonsai Trees

Starting out in bonsai is a tough thing to do. It’s easy to get it wrong, be misguided, be deceived or bamboozled by the ignorance of other egotistical self proclaimed ‘experts’. The fact that someone has a large following does not guarantee they know what they are doing. My own mentor introduced me to the concept of smoke and mirrors. Trust me, there are very few genuine ‘teachers’ out there. There are even fewer who really know what they are doing. The big problem is that as a fresh faced newbie full of excitement and enthusiasm we simply cannot tell the difference between an egotistical dumbass on a popularity trip and the bonsai master that would delight in our achieving more than they ever did.

My own mentor told me to judge what folk had to say and were teaching based on the bonsai trees on their benches. Whilst that is true to a point it’s not foolproof, it’s easy to buy a good bonsai tree. Sure those with limited experience will shag them up eventually but as a beginner we cannot tell the difference between a tree that is going forward and one that is slowly dying. When I was starting out it was all books and magazines and we did not travel with impunity like folk do today. I was very easily impressed and those favourable impressions stick to us like a limpet, often for life. Given time it can become clear that those early impressions were in fact not helpful but often they become guiding experiences for years on end.
Today there are simply endless opportunities to pick up nonsense that we would be better off not knowing, just look at any social media group focused on beginner and intermediate bonsai. As an example I recently saw a post from a guy accompanied by a picture of a bottle of “bonsai fertiliser”. He was asking how this should be used and applied. There were endless replies from folk, evidently of limited experience, chipping in their opinions. I really can’t figure out why he did not just flip the bottle over and read the label. At the end even I was confused and I have formulated fertilisers and studied the science of plant nutrition for decades and had experience of thirty years keeping thousands of bonsai trees. My point is that, as fresh faced newbies, we do not know what we do not know so have no way to know what we need to know. We also lack a shit filter by virtue of our inexperience and can be easily impressed by what is actually….. shit and as I said, favourable impressions tend to stay with us.
Sadly I cannot impart a life time of experience in less than a lifetime. Even writing this is fraught with problems because what is in my head, that I hope to convey, cannot possibly be interpreted by the readers brain in the same way. That may be because I am a poor writer but I do my best. All a teacher can do is show the way, the student must always walk in front of the teacher and follow his masters guidance but it is incumbent upon the student to move forward and make the progress. If we are not moving forwards the very best teacher cannot guide us. Those that ‘follow’ another so called teacher are just lackeys destined to remain servile flunkeys. In order to forge our own path we must live our life by conviction and take responsibility for our decisions. That’s not easy in todays society where we give up so many choices to others from school teachers to employers and politicians. Personally I believe we should be trail breaking pioneers that stand alone, stand up for our own choices, pay for our own mistakes and owe no other man anything. A smart head and a pioneering attitude will pretty much guarantee a successful life and that includes the pursuit of bonsai excellence.
Getting back to the point I was hoping to make about figuring this whole thing out. I have noticed that a lot of what folk are doing is all about taking away from a plant in order to turn it into bonsai. That’s what we in Norfolk call ‘ass backards’. Let me explain…… Some smart Alec (as it turns out Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the minimalist architect) once said that “Less is more”. That’s a massively mis-understood expression that has become a widely used and abused platitude in many walks of life. I was bottom of the class in maths but even a dummy like me knows that if I have less than £10 then I don’t have £10, I certainly don’t have £12. What our learned builder was trying to say was that it’s not always desirable to overcomplicate something and i am a hundred percent in favour of that idea. Many solutions to complex life problems are very simple, often laughably so.
This ‘less is more’ platitude has widely become an excuse for laziness. After all, who want’s to spend all day wiring a large plant to shape for bonsai when we can cut it in half, wire one branch and impress our audience with our artistic prowess and courage. Just because someone once said “make the smallest tree you can” does not give any of us a pass to commit these atrocities. I have lost count of the number of times I have seen that sort of talentless brutalisation presented in the egotistical name of ‘art’. Surely the whole point of art in a bonsai context is to create an expression of something beautiful, a signpost to an inspiring landscape.
Obviously within the process of creating a bonsai tree from a bushy plant it will be necessary to do some pruning. Pruning is a process of taking away from a plant. The more we take away the less there is that remains. Once this tips over a critical point our plant will begin to suffer and the more we take away the greater the suffering. A plant is just a solar energy generator that combines water and carbon dioxide with sunlight to create energy for growth. Every little bit of a tree we prune impedes it’s ability to live, a trees life does NOT come from the soil or it’s roots, all those things do is support the trees solar generation. How else would a cutting work? It takes sunlight and creates enough energy to grow a new root system where there is none. Whilst a deciduous tree may be able to generate new growth from old wood this is only achieved by virtue of previously stored energy and once that is depleted it’s all over.
I see beginners and a lot of folk, that ought to know better, taking away vast amount of a trees structure in order to ‘style’ a bonsai and before the tree has had time to recover they are chopping it’s roots off and cramming it into a silly little pot. This process is repeated over and over every single day on social media. Whilst some folk are lucky and get away with it most do not and on a ten year timescale most of those mis-guided endeavours do not create bonsai trees. Sadly the tide of ignorance is rising and there are relatively few who can resist the flood.
Creating and maintaining bonsai trees has relatively little to do with wiring, carving, re-potting or pruning. The key to creating bonsai trees long term is in GROWING. Everything we do takes away from our tree. Sure we have to steer our plants in the right direction which is where our techniques come in but the real magic only comes from the plant and it’s positive response in relation to our request. Much like the teacher guiding his student I outlined above. The skill in creating bonsai comes from understanding how to encourage and manipulate a plants impulsion to grow whilst not impeding or slowing down it’s forward progress. As it turns out a ‘bonsai master’ is the guy who teaches the tree how to become beautiful. Old bonsai trees display the skill of their masters in managing their growth. To the inexperienced eye a tree can look stunning but to those who really know their stuff the same tree is like a naked photo, there really in nowhere to hide for good or bad. I see a lot of people putting those naked images online. Their presentations are offensive and they should be mortally embarrassed but the cloak of ignorance is a powerful thing.
If we are going to create beautiful bonsai we have to learn how to begin adding to a tree rather than just focusing on what we take away, we are going to have to learn how to GROW bonsai. One of the most significant lessons I learned came from Marco Invernizzi many years ago. At the time there was a silly notion going around that a ‘true’ bonsai artist ought to be able to make a beautiful bonsai tree from pretty much anything. We were at a workshop with Marco at the local bonsai club and the material that had been bought in by most of the participants was shocking. Our Italian friend does great work but even his master, The Magician, Mr Kimura would not have been able to conjure up bonsai trees from the assemblage of fetid road kill on offer.
Being a true professional Marco proceeded to talk to us all about how to prepare raw material for styling. A process that can take years to complete in order to create the right type of foliage and structure in the right place alongside maximum strength and health supported by the right kind of root system. This is a skilled process that takes a long time and significant experience to learn and understand. If completed properly the first styling of a tree can create the appearance of an aged bonsai. Just going to a nursery, buying an untrained tree, chopping the shit out of it and giving it a scruffy wire before bending it into a contrived shape is NOT bonsai, it’s ugly and disrespectful of the nature bonsai is supposed to substantiate. Sure we all have to practice but PLEASE, do that in private, keep it to yourself for the first ten years.
So, having got all that off my chest let’s get to the point. For many years I have been expounding the virtues of developing bonsai trees in large pots, in particular tall narrow commercial horticultural style pots (Ercole Air pots are a good option too). Over more than twenty years I have developed trees and restored old suffering bonsai in such containers. It’s possible to grow and develop bonsai up to ten times faster than in bonsai pots whilst maintaining control of what’s going on in a way that’s difficult to achieve growing in the ground. Remember, bonsai trees go into bonsai pots. A plant in a bonsai pot is NOT a bonsai tree. This story is about a Chinese elm.
Old but weak Chinese elm tree bonsai needing help

This old and poorly Chinese elm finally returned to us after over 10 years of travelling.

How things change in bonsai, this big Chinese elm, the subject of this diatribe goes back with me for a lot of years. About fifteen years ago it was possible to buy these beautiful craggy old well ramified trees for peanuts. A lot we had were simply stunning and the supply was so plentiful we pushed them out the door like they had fleas. I sold a totally hollow elm that took three men to lift and had been in a bonsai pot for fifty years for well under a monkey. Today the tree would fetch in excess of £7500. This particular elm was sold out of the garden for just over a hundred fine British pounds. It’s owner held onto it for around ten years and it even spent some time in Greece / Cyprus or some such place. On returning to the UK and strapped for cash it was offered to me and I bought it back for £400 and what a sorry state it was in. Not re-potted for years and leaves just a few millimetres in length and no new growth at all and lots of die back.
Because a tree like this is typically very weak there is a limited number of options to turn it around. Conventional re-potting would have killed the tree that literally sat on a knife edge. Also the root system was so compacted that nothing short of a sawzall would have dealt with it. However as I said before a simple solution is normally the best. I filled my favourite tall pot with garden soil, a sandy loam, nothing special. Fill the pot sufficiently that the tree, less it’s pot, can be placed on the soil leaving about an inch or two of headspace. Finally pack the soil around the existing rootball and cover with about a half inch. Place in full sun, fill the headspace with water to thoroughly soak. This can be done at any time of year. My good garden soil was populated with plenty of worms and those are important.
Chinese elm tree poorly weak growth

Very poorly weak growth with a lot of die back.

The MAGIC pot we are going to use to transform the fortunes of this poorly old bonsai tree.

Garden soil (with worms etc’).

Simply lift out of it’s pot and plop it down in the new pot and cover the root mass with soil.

Chinese elm tree starting to grow in spring

Two weeks later, the last of winter leaf is falling away and new growth is starting.

After completing the above all that is required is a little water every few days. Within two months I had about 4” of growth all over, more than the tree had been able to make in several proceeding years combined. I added a light application of Green Dream fertiliser and let alone. By seasons end I had about 9-12” of growth which was left untouched and the tree stayed in the same exposed position all winter. The following year I was able to make an application of Green Dream early in the spring as new growth commenced and as normal throughout the season. By the end of that summer I had about 12″ to 24″ of growth all over and, for a Chinese elm, massive leaves.
The following spring as the buds began to open I gave the tree a hard prune right back into secondary and tertiary branching. Setting up a nice branch structure was easy on an old tree like this and largely involved removing weak thin growth and everything growing down or inwards. After that the tree went back into it’s exposed position outside and within a few days buds were exploding from everywhere. That summer I let the growth extend untouched as normal.
Chinese elm tree after a good summers growth to recover it's strength

Spring, buds opening and time for a prune back into old wood.

Heavily flaking bark shows the trunk has been expanding over the last couple of years.

Chinese elm tree buds opening in spring.

Opening buds indicate time to get busy.

Chinese elm tree after hard pruning.

After an hour of cleaning and pruning into old wood.

Chinese elm tree back budding.

A couple of weeks later new buds exploding all over. Only strong trees react this well to a hard prune.

Come the fourth year I again did a hard spring prune and over the following summer started pruning new growth back to a couple of leaves once it reached about 3 inches in length. Fertilising carried on as normal but watering was scaled back a bit. Dense growth with tiny internodes was the result and as density increased the leaves became smaller. Over those four years the trunk increased in diameter and started making that beautiful flaking bark so typical of old Chinese elm.
Chinese elm tree ready for re-potting

Spring 2020. Being strong it has maintained most of it’s leaf cover all winter. New growth is emerging rapidly and it’s re-potting time.

Chinese elm tree flaking bark

Do NOT touch beautiful bark like this when re-potting (or ever).

This spring, as the new growth opened I decided it was time to go back to a bonsai pot. At this point you would expect a fight to clear out the original compacted rootball from it’s previous tiny pot. However this growing technique fixes that. Most of a compacted rootball is actually dead root material. The combined action of explosive growth, fungal and bacterial action supported by the garden soil and the action of worms really does clear that all out and re-potting was a breeze after I sawed off the bulk of the deep rootball with my sawzall. Now the tree, much larger more craggy and impressive that it ever was with significantly improved branch structure and a beautiful root system is back in a more suitable sized bonsai pot.
Going forward, to improve the fine ramification the tree will remain in it’s exposed position in full sun. Work to maintain high vigour and rampant growth will continue as before. The only change will be pruning of the new shoots will happen much earlier, at an inch or less of extension. This will probably require a few snips every day throughout the summer. It may also be necessary to thin out the leaf mass from time to time in order to keep inner branches healthy. By years end ramification will be so dense it will practically be shower proof, like an umbrella. A healthy Chinese elm will fill a pot with root in a year and depending upon what I see next spring re-potting may happen annually or at the most every second year. Leaving an elm too long in it’s pot will result in reduced growth and progressive weakness, that’s how we got here in the first place. Owning a quality Chinese elm is a bit like having an iron ball attached to your ankle but what use is a hobby with nothing to do?
Hopefully this example illustrates my point that in order to create beautiful bonsai trees we need to learn how to add to a tree and harness it’s growth in order to help it be beautiful. Mastery of every influence upon the tree from sunlight to water coupled with judicious application of bonsai techniques like pruning is imperative. I would say that at no point in the last five years has anything been done to interrupt or reduce this trees vigour and strength. Over that timeframe I have spent no more than a half dozen hours messing with the tree. However in that same time period the tree has spent 44,000 hours becoming more beautiful than ever. Our input, when applied correctly should be very small indeed. Trees want to be beautiful, all we need to do is allow them to be just that.
Chinese elm bonsai tree

Facing a bright future. Now the work really starts in earnest. The better and older a bonsai becomes the greater the workload.

Poorly weak Chinese elm bonsai tree

Left alone this tree would have slowly shed branches before ultimately keeling over dead.

Upside Down Bonsai

I remember decades ago, around the end of the seventies to be precise, my parents took my best mate Woody and I down to that there London. We were heading to Wembley arena to see Ritchie Blackmore’s Rainbow, a big deal for a couple of clod hoppers from the sticks and quite a drive for the old man. At some point we ended up a bit lost, not that the A to Z ran out of charge, we just got in a muddle. So the old fella pulled up at the side of the road and accosted a passer-by like you did back then. What follows is the honest truth…

Dad wound down the window and called the fellow over asking if he could help us out with directions. It was dark and raining and this fellow walked over and stuck his head through the window, looked at dad sitting behind the steering wheel and in a deep Irish accent said ” You’ll be the driver then?” After a little back and forth he then said “I wouldn’t start from here if I were you!” So, he gave us instructions on how to get to a good place to start from so we went there and asked someone else…. eventually we arrived and got sever neck pain and lost our hearing for a couple of days. A seminal moment for a couple of young lads alone in a stadium full of thirty thousand pissed and stoned rockers.

Most things in life refer back to bonsai in some way or other and so does this. I am constantly bothered by bonsai novices, and some who ought to know better about the process of developing bonsai. I don’t mind, it’s my job but it can get a little old, constantly explaining the bleedin’ obvious. The founder of Amazon said that people are three things…. Lazy, Greedy and Horny. I can’t do much about the latter but the former do concern us in this context.

Learning to understand and master bonsai is the work of a lifetime and not for the idle or tired of hand. It will also cost a fortune both in time and money. The only thing you can get for nothing is…… nothing. I have said it here before, life lessons cost money, goods ones cost lots. In my experience most folk are looking for an easy and cheap quick fix to satisfy their bonsai ambitions. Categorically, you cannot own spectacular bonsai and do right by them without having paid your dues. Without a deep understanding of horticulture your bonsai may survive but they certainly won’t thrive.

Sadly most folk who get into bonsai these days do so without personal contact with a qualified bonsai master with a proven track record. Getting into bonsai on the cheap is easy these days but cheap, and easy are mutually exclusive to long term success in the mastery of the art. I see so many social media forums and groups where folk are proudly posting images of their  little trees asking what their next step should be. I know how it goes, below are my first two ‘trees’. However an open forum where anyone is free to post is largely worthless in developing our understanding of bonsai. One of the fathers of British bonsai once told me these things are “….a bunch of know nothings trying to teach a bunch of do nothings”. Harsh to be sure but there is some truth in the statement. The net result is a lot of confusion and often a lot of discouragement. Let’s be straight here, learning bonsai from the ground up is a massive SLOG, especially if you also have to learn the horticulture too and the road is full of pot holes.

These were my very first ‘bonsai’ and worthy of a photo!












So, when I am being questioned about what to do with little trees like this my answer would be “I wouldn’t start from here if I were you“.

The other question I get asked is “….how big my bonsai will get“.

The issue here stems from a fundamental ignorance of the process. This has mostly been arrived at by folk buying bonsai seed kits, about as much use as a double ended condom. Folk are also keen to buy cheap ‘Starter trees’ without one clue about how to develop them. I have lost count of the number of one year old seedlings I have seen in bonsai pots. One time, and only one time (ass) my neighbour came over and looked at my trees and genuinely asked how long it took me to grow all those from seed. To be fair all he grows is grass and his wallet so maybe I can give him a pass. Growing bonsai is a multi stage process and each process takes a lifetime to fully master and even then….

  1. Propagate your material
  2. Develop your basic trunk and nebari
  3. Build a fibrous root system suitable for a pot
  4. Develop primary branching
  5. Develop secondary branching
  6. Develop tertiary branching
  7. Develop ramification
  8. Constantly improve the root system and nebari
  9. Long term maintenance and refinement
  10. You are dead, pass your masterpiece on to someone else.

In reality most bonsai trees start large and are made smaller. This gives us a big trunk in the shortest possible time. From there we can jump right into step 3 and 4. Growing a trunk in open ground is a specialist skill all it’s own and I only ever met a couple of folk who can do it properly. My advice is spend some money and get alongside an expert with a proven track record. A big social media following does not qualify a bonsai enthusiast as a bonsai master, that’s a moniker that has to be bestowed by other bonsai masters, not feckless followers who are easily impressed.

I thought, as a good example of contrast between the hopeless material I started with as pictured above I would show you the sort of thing I prefer these days…..

Time to get our bonsai the right way up.


Trust me there is a trunk buried in there somewhere.

New Soil Packages – A History Lesson

Today we have changed the packaging of our very popular soil mixes. Before I launch into a history lesson let me explain. For reasons I will explain we can no longer ship products NOT in neat cardboard cartons. Sadly that means an end to our infinitely popular 50l soil sack packages. I have been working on this for months now, how to package soil in a box that will get delivered in one piece, retain the great value the sacks provided and still keep the margin we need to make the whole endeavour worthwhile. I am sure that sounds simple enough but trust me, I have dozens of pages of workings out, we have had to re-formulate the soils for consistent weigh to volume ratios. We have done dozens of tests with various packaging options and purchased pallets of all sizes of cartons. In short this has been the subject of my waking hours for over three months now.

So we have replaced our 14L and 50L packages with a single 17L boxed product nicely contained within a re-used cardboard carton, lined with a thin plastic sack, perfect for the carriers. The price of the delivered product has had to rise slightly due to the cost of packaging and processing time. Rather than buying a 50L sack we have a special discount price for 3x17L cartons (51L). For a dumbass who flunked maths at school this simple thing is a significant triumph.

So, what caused this change? What bought us to this? For the two people that might actually be interested or care let me explain I need the catharsis…..  Nobody cares about delivery until it goes wrong. At that point, for some you would think their whole family burned to death in a car if judged by their extraordinary overblown angry reaction. Let’s face it, we do bonsai stuff, what exactly happens in a hurry? Still, it’s a symptom of our over privileged first world life that we are (at least in our own minds) entirely justified in hurling scathing abuse at business owners, operators and staff along with hard working delivery drivers. Just like a baby throwing all it’s toys out of the pram, British people have become so self centred, self obsessed and self important that they will LITERALLY say anything to get their own way. Well…. around here abuse is not tolerated, I will not take it and neither will I let my folk suffer at the hands of dummy spitting babies. Try it on me and I will tell you to F**** right off, it’s happened a lot. Folk threaten to sue me because a parcel is late. Try it, i’ll burn everything I own to the ground before you get a penny even IF I were liable. The shit we get here over delivery from otherwise right minded people has literally left my beautiful wife in floods of tears. Thankfully I know a guy.

Back in 2004 when we started this whole Kaizen Bonsai malarkey there was no web site (writing that makes my heart miss a beat, what a wonderful time) just a paper catalogue. Yesterday I looked up a copy. Back then, 16 years for the numerically challenged, delivery cost £9.50 with up to 21 day turn around and everyone was grateful we provided the service and saved them the trouble of dragging their ass all around the country looking for stuff they needed. Back then few people ran mail order businesses. It cost a lot to compile, print and mail a catalogue even if you had the requisite skills and that’s not to mention the money you needed for stock to back up your offering. For the price of mailing two thousand catalogues you could go to a wholesaler, buy a few bonsai, some tools and a bit of soil and set up a backyard bonsai nursery and sell at your local club. That’s what we all did. But, some folk don’t do clubs and the like and so Colin Lewis saw the need for a mail order business which in time became mine.

It was fairly obvious to me right at the outset we would need a web site, quite an insight for Mr Stoneage here. Soon after, the Post Office decided they didn’t really want to deliver mail any more and increased their prices to the point where it cost over twice as much to deliver a catalogue than it did to print the thing. Finally, come the shenanigans of 2008 and the ‘financial crash’ it became impossible to fix prices for a year because of wildly fluctuating exchange rates, besides the fact so many businesses were going to the wall and supply of products became impossible to secure. All those factors combined finally nailed the lid shut on the coffin of our wonderful paper catalogue.

Around that time we saw a literal explosion of small web sites and Ebay shops selling bonsai stuff. Much like the little backyard bonsai nursery of yore, a quick trip to a wholesaler and a grand later you were ‘in business’. Perfect for those working full time and looking to make beer money. Not so good for larger businesses and bona fide traditional nurseries with real overheads and wages to pay. Those of us with a large business literally got our heads kicked in by insane cost cutting. I remember visiting with a tree importer of the time and asking why I was paying so much for little cork bark elms which were listed on Ebay for £1.50 below the Ex VAT wholesale price. He told me the guy in question was paying £2 more per unit than I was and chose to sell them at a loss. That sort of behaviour rocked our world. Remember Akadama was £16 a bag in 1995 before dropping to £5 in the mid 2000s. All the folk doing those stupid things have gone now (for now) having gone bust or come to the realisation that being king of the CHEAP hill was a stupid life goal and the paper crown made you look like a gormless t**t.

There is a simple way to build a business and fill your order books, just be cheaper than everyone else. Whilst that may work for Tesco, Argos or Amazon it won’t work for a little specialist retail concern. Large retailers do not make their money from selling products. I was told that Tesco typically make a couple of quid on a hundred pound grocery spend. Modern mass retail by PLCs does not make money from selling actual product, they can sell product at a loss but still make a profit. I’m way too bone idle to explain how that works, go figure.

So in the battle for market share product prices fell and fell. Since the day I was born in 1964 prices for retail goods have been falling. Literally everything is a lot cheaper today than it was previously. The pound more or less halves in value every fifteen years but a lot of the items we sell are literally lower priced than they were thirty years ago. In know folk will say that just proves how much everyone was making back in the day but that’s not true. Cost savings at every turn have largely made this possible along with cheaper transport and bulk buying. I remember back when I started carving bonsai trees there were not many options for buying cutters so I went to the local family owned hardware store and bought a dovetail router bit. That cost me £21. Today that same router bit can be bought on Ebay for £3.90 including VAT and delivery. So, let’s break that down…

£3.90 less 20% VAT leaves £3.12 less 8% Ebay commission (the rate for larger sellers) which gives us £2.87 less 70p for postage leaves £2.17 from which we need to buy a paddy bag, print a packing slip and shipping label, a conservative estimate would be 15p so £2.02 Next we have to cover someone pick and pack the order. From experience this would take 10-15 minutes but lets say 5 minutes at minimum wage so 68p giving us a balance of £1.34. Out of that we have to pay all our overheads, heat, light, Paypal/bank fees, computers, printers, vehicles, insurance, accountancy and a million other costs. For most businesses that could be 40% of gross profit so lets assume this seller works on a 100% margin. A half of £1.34 is 67p so 40% overhead allowance from that gives us 40p net margin and leaves 67p for the cutter to be manufactured in China and shipped to the UK. The manufacturer has all the same overheads as do the shippers and the importer has to deal with the meddling government and their sticky fingers. Our retailer would have to sell and ship ten of these to buy a pint in a pub. The manufacturer would probably have to sell a hundred pieces to do the same. Ebay and Paypal and the treasury make the lions share and everyone else makes f-all. It’s not until you sit down in your accountants office to go over your year ends figures you realise just what a waste of time it all was. Sure if you sold a million pieces at 2p profit you could say you were a success but in reality it does not work like that unless you are a PLC. Finally of course all the above only works if the retailer buys his product direct from the factory gate. If you buy through an intermediary it’s all for nought.

That simple equation my friends is exactly why your local high street is a monument to failure. Too much cost (overhead) and too little profit is largely the reason why 57% of UK startups fail within the first five years. 357,000 businesses died between 2016 and 2017. Put simply there are too many people trying to sell stuff to too few customers most of which are only interested in obtaining the lowest price and could care less about the survival of their suppliers. Most brain dead business owners assume the only way to sell more is to ‘compete’ on price’. The assumption being that the lowest price will move the largest amount of product. I don’t need to point out the risk of competing with another business who is working hard at going broke. If you don’t have the financial clout to shorten your supply chain and can’t reduce your selling price any more, for a mail order company that only leaves one option. To compete on delivery which brings me back to the point of this long winded drivel.
If my product price is higher than a competitors but you still want to keep an edge it would seem logical to offer a lower delivery price, a faster service or even ‘free’ delivery. Wash my mouth out with soap for even uttering the notion. However delivery is never going to be free. I can categorically state that there is not a single commercial business on the planet that delivers for free. However no mail order operator wants to charge for delivery, it’s a significant barrier to customers buying. So, some knuckleheads began offering next day delivery as standard for a price. In time that price dropped and within just a couple of years free next day, or even same day delivery became normal. However with increasing legislation and employer responsibilities operating costs for delivery increased enormously. So we all started hounding our carriers offering more business volume, loyalty or whatever spurious nonsense we could conceive to get a lower price. So, back in 2004 when we were offering delivery for £9.50 I was paying closer to £11 per consignment on a 48 hour service. In time our volumes increased and by moving from one provider to another we got a lower price. Bit by bit our delivery price came to an historical low of £6.95. Still we were subsidising that but we survived. In order for carriers to attract our business they started adding value to their service with things like enhanced tracking, delivery alerts and the like.
For every one of the last sixteen years in business we have seen the cost of carriage falling. However whilst the headline price we pay may have reduced we have seen increasing add on costs like the introduction of a fuel surcharge following the fuel price spike of 2008. Strangely that started at around 3% but even though fuel cost has fallen by up to 45p (at times) a litre since those heady days our fuel surcharge has increased to 9-12%. Prices for over-weight or oversize parcels have also rocketed. There is something called volumetric weight. Take the volumetric capacity of a parcel and divide it by a certain number and if the result is over an arbitrary amount and we will get a fine. Example? A standard parcel under the line costs me £7 but 5 cubic centimetres over the line and my cost rises to £48. Seriously, I can show you the invoices. Carriers have been busting their humps for years now trying to remain profitable. We all know the increasing cost of running a vehicle but as a business operator that is SIGNIFICANTLY more. As soon as you are making money everyone wants a bit of it including insurance companies and the rest.
Parcel carriers have been working to reduce their costs. It’s not really possible to reduce the cost of delivery, that still requires a bloke and a van. However they have been able to get rid of vast numbers of staff by mechanising their sorting hubs. Back in the day people loaded and unloaded vans and pushed big cages of parcels around the hub putting them on and taking them off trunkers and sorting everything. Today that has all gone. A driver collects our parcels and puts them in his van and very few people touch them until another guy picks up that same parcel in the back of his van and carries it to your door. Everything has become entirely automated and the people have largely all gone. Obviously there has always been some mechanisation but there was always capacity for what was called ‘ugly’ freight. That included oversize and overweight parcels, bicycles, coffins and all the other crazy stuff we used to be able to ship including our sacks of soil. Today the staff that manually handled all that stuff are gone and if a machine can’t handle the product it does not ship. Therefore our much loved bags of soil are no more.

Our carriers rep’ tells me his drivers do between eighty and a hundred and twenty drops per day but even so every van on deliveries loses about  £75 per day. However if those same vans can make collections as well from the likes of us there is a chance of a profit assuming the van arrives back at the depot with enough parcels in it. Many drivers are self employed and rent their van from the company they contract their time to. Drivers can be paid as little as 50p a drop which does not include re-delivery attempts. They don’t get paid holiday and often have to work twelve or more hours a day. One of our drivers was in this situation, he worked from 6am to 7pm Monday to Friday and did Saturday 6am to 1pm. This guy was the best driver we ever had, an utterly brilliant lad who could not do enough for us. At the end of the year he cleared less that twelve grand. That’s the net result of mail order customers wanting cheap or free delivery AND low prices. You can’t have it all and even if you get it I can guarantee that provider will not survive.

Buying mail order is a privilege. You get what you want at a competitive price in a relatively short period of time without leaving your house whilst someone else does all the work. I suggest we all be grateful for the service we get because the writing is on the wall and this is not going to carry on like it currently does, change is coming my friends.


P.S As I was writing this I got notification that if as a company I sell products to customers in New Zealand I now have to register as a tax collector for the NZ government and collect GST (goods and services tax) direct from my customer at the rate of 15%. I love NZ and the people there, my grandfather (Nelson) was born there but the New Zealand government can go f*** themselves if they think I am going to do that. It’s just a matter of time before mail order becomes the expensive option and it will, once again, be cheaper to hit the road and go buy what we need face to face.

Abuse! Abuse!

It’s been one of the most difficult weeks I have experienced here at KB. One of those periods of time when I was considering a new career as what we used to call a ‘drunk’. HOW has modern life become so terrifying? I have dealt with some serious shit in my life from a bump on the head to the death of my wife but, being in business today is coming close to recreating some of the feelings and concerns of trials past. Still, being an Englishman I will choke it all down and just get on. Nothing wrong with a bit of emotional constipation after all. Better that than all the grizzling, grumbling touchy feely diarrhea spewing forth from popular media these days. What was it Tony Soprano said? *

The one ray of sunshine is that we have been insanely busy, over 300 parcels left this week. Not bad considering Richard has been largely on his own and Sarah is half way to delivering their first kiddy. Catherine has not looked up from her computer, doing 12 hour days, she’s not seen the light of day since last Sunday and this weekend she will be incarcerated doing stinking VAT.

If you have been a little frustrated waiting for an order please accept my apologies. We do the best we can and if the government were not stealing all our profits we could easily employ two more full time members of staff. When I started this business I was VERY concerned we might not make wage N01. As it turns out making money is easy but keeping it is pretty much impossible. Business has become our esteemed leaders piggy bank and they just take whatever they want pretty much. I am just very thankful I am the age I am and the finish line is in sight.

The weather got a bit crazy this week. Here it became somewhat blowy overnight. Come the morning there were trees scattered all over the place. One in particular was this pine. To be fair I assumed it had a death wish. For the last year it’s been falling over almost without provocation. Every other day I found it laying on the floor having taken a header off one bench or another. In the end I just left it on the floor. In summer I stood it up to water it and then laid it back down again to save the fall. It’s had several pots in the last year and finally I just didn’t bother replacing them. Despite the abuse it’s grown really well.

This week it blew off it’s perch, rolled about thirty feet down the hill and then valiantly broke the fall of a large and valuable juniper which landed right on top of it. Having survived all that I finally got my conscience pricked and decided to sort it out. A couple of lunch times spent wiring squared it away and I have now popped it into a larger pot. I’ll tie it down outside on the bench now. Just goes to show how tough these things are I guess. Sometimes we just have to suck it up and go get on, right?


*Tony Soprano: Let me tell ya something. Nowadays, everybody’s gotta go to shrinks, and counselors, and go on “Sally Jessy Raphael” and talk about their problems. What happened to Gary Cooper? The strong, silent type. That was an American. He wasn’t in touch with his feelings. He just did what he had to do. See, what they didn’t know was once they got Gary Cooper in touch with his feelings that they wouldn’t be able to shut him up! And then it’s dysfunction this, and dysfunction that, and dysfunction vaffancul!

The Sopranos – Pilot (season 1, episode 1)















Bonsai Tree Scappage Scheme

I was busy replacing some knackered benches over the holiday and whilst clearing up and poking around in the back hedge I turned up an old brake disk. This rusty bit of iron came from an MG/Austin project from the late fifties I did years ago. Not too sure how it found it’s way into the hedge. Seeing as recycling is so fashionable I figured I could use this. It’s now made a nice home for this POS privet.
Privet bonsai, unusual pot

The wind won’t blow it over and i prefer it to plastic for sure.

The ‘pot’ is older than the tree by about fifty years.

Next week the Shovel-head piston pot.
The Honda crankcase landscape planting.
Kawasaki sump pan pot.
Ford brake drum pot.
The Chevy’ exhaust cascade pot.
Matchless headlight bucket mountain planting……. In fact the more I think about it there are endless possibilities for all the old scrap I have cluttering up the place. Most garages have more of this crap lying around than they can cope with and it’s pretty much worthless as scrap. Considering ceramic bonsai pots are largely made in coal or diesel fired kilns and have to travel half way around the world perhaps some creative thinking could….. A: Save us money. B: Re-use some waste. C: Improve our public image. D: Give the planet a break. E: Give us all something to smile about…..

A Cautionary Tale

Being Christmas I thought some of you lovely people might have time for a long winded diatribe so here it is….

A Cautionary Tale

We humans are creatures of habit. It may be fashionable to ‘mix it up’ but at the end of the day most of us are at our best when fully immersed in familiar surroundings and routine. That’s a good thing, our world needs us to be there, be reliable, turn up on time and do our bit for the common good.


One of our most reliable habitual behaviours is that of taking the route of least resistance to a desired destination or goal. That however can, on occasions, not be a good habit and just might lead us to frustration and failure. Where bonsai trees are concerned being idle is just asking for trouble. Over the last couple of years I have seen some instances where this issue has resulted in utter devastation and the catastrophic failure of some beautiful bonsai trees not to mention many wasted years, frustration and a spectacular loss of money and effort. I could post pictures but they are just too distressing for words so please take my word for it.


Taking the route of least resistance in life is a bad habit that leads at best to mediocrity. By and large our lives are the result of the choices we make. I know there are some pretty powerful outside forces that have significant influence over the lives of many folk but bonsai hobbyists, by and large, are lucky folk who have the privilege of living healthy, wealthy lives in good places. But, those of us living such privileged lives have a severe problem….. we have everything we need at our finger tips and good living is easy. We might say life is tough and we are ‘so busy’ but most of that ‘ business‘ is being expended on obtaining things we don’t need like expensive holidays or bonsai trees.


I do not resent success, I started work at the tender age of twelve years in order to assure mine and now forty three years later I am still at it. There was not a single one of those days I did not do something to assure the progress my family now enjoys. No holidays for Potts, not for twenty seven years now. I am a working class lad with a mediocre education, zero social skills and left school as a no hoper. I have bought my education in life at a high price and one of the lessons I learnt early on was that Easy Street is a dead end.


I was a spotty teenager when I read a profound statement.

In order to be successful all you have to do is do what successful people do.

I learnt right there I had to spend my life with people who were where I wanted to be. From that moment onwards I spent my time with older people, clever, prosperous and successful men with good families and great businesses. They constantly gave me a hard time and I might have been a target for derision but nobody was happier than me. My ‘mates’ ran rings around me, took the piss and cost me a fortune but those life lessons have proven to be of infinite value to me all these years later.


Back when I was at work everyone in our factory would piss and moan about what a sweatshop we all worked in. Poor pay, lots of stress and pressure and a miserable boss constantly riding us. Everyone relentlessly threatened to leave but we were all besties in our misery. One day I did leave and to this day not a single one of those folk has said a word to me, not even when I went back there to say hello, I ended up chatting with the boss. A good friend of mine who spent his life in places like that said it was like having a bucket of crabs. They are all trying to escape but as soon as one gets up there and makes some progress the others all pull him back down.


It’s nice to know where we are, be comfortable and enjoy a reliable routine. That’s largely achieved by hard work, in this world security is a valuable commodity that was earned at great cost and should be appreciated every day. We do not have a right to this comfortable life and it should not be taken for granted, it cost a lot of folk a great deal. Taking the route of least resistance is a sure fire way to loose what we have.


In order to achieve anything in life we need to educate ourselves. You would think today that would be easy right? Apparently we live in an ‘information’ age. However, as with all things related to humans information is subject to corruption. The word information is defined as

1. facts provided or learned about something or someone.

2.what is conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things.

It’s this last definition that applies to the subject under discussion or at least it will be when I eventually get there.


Where bonsai trees are concerned there is no such thing as a straight answer to a seemingly simple question. There are just SO many variables involved. I spend a lot of my time helping folk to figure this stuff out. By far the largest proportion of that time is spent hacking through the undergrowth of misunderstanding and the inappropriate application of received wisdom. It’s imperative that we learn the basic principles of horticultural science. Once we have that knowledge we will be able to figure out what is working and what is not. If something we do has good results we need to know WHY, conversely we need to know WHY something is going wrong so we can correct it.


Received wisdom could also be called ‘common knowledge’ that is held to be true, but may not be. The received wisdom says a plant that has pale yellowing colour is suffering from a nutrient deficiency but that’s simply not true in most cases. In extreme cases a nutrient deficiency, particularly iron, can cause chlorosis, yellowing of the foliage. However the causes of yellowing foliage are legion and in my bonsai experience nutrient deficiency is very low on the list of likely causes. Knowing our horticulture enables us to discern precisely what is wrong and correct the issue. Therein is my point, received wisdom is insufficient to correctly discern and address a problem. Only scientific study (and understanding) along with practical experience and application is up to the task.


Sadly today what we call education is, by and large, just the learning by rote of received wisdom. Practical learning by physical experience, experimentation and failure has been swept away in favour of systematic instruction. Real personal learning has been sacrificed in favour a measurable standard to support political ends. In my opinion this type of learning stifles the inquisitive mind and oversimplifies complex subjects. In reality most bonsai knowledge falls into this category, it’s just tradition passed from generation to generation.


For a moment let’s think about some of the gospel truths that have guided bonsai accumulators for years.

  1. Bonsai need free draining soil
  2. Bonsai trees are re-potted in spring
  3. Bonsai trees need winter protection
  4. Fruit bearing bonsai can die if they set too much fruit
  5. Systemic chemicals are poisonous to bonsai trees
  6. Bonsai are potted in a sterile medium.

Whilst there may be an original truth in all of the above their over-simplification and blanket application can be extremely damaging in some cases. It’s just NOT true that we have to sieve out all our bonsai soil to remove fines. In some cases it’s desirable but in others it’s beneficial to add more fine material. We need to know the detail, success in life is all about the details.


So, to the point of all this. Three times recently I have been working with folk who are having serious problems with their trees and this has been going on for a long time. In particular the issue has been largely (but not exclusively) effecting coniferous trees. We went through all the usual things like soil, re-potting frequency, siting, watering etc’. In all cases there were no obvious reason for the issues and these were not inexperienced folk. It took me a long time to get there but in the end the problem came down to fertiliser. Specifically the OVER USE of fertiliser.


Education is important in all walks of life but obviously we do not know, what we do not know, so it’s hard to know if there is something we don’t know and are missing. That’s where spending time with folk who are where we want to be becomes valuable because often they DO know what we don’t. It takes experience to diagnose problems. That’s why doctors don’t recommend self diagnosis via the internet and why car mechanics think most people are stupid. Nine times out of ten, in our ignorance we come to the wrong conclusion. We all start off ignorant in life and don’t even have the sense not to piss in our pants. Good parents help us with those things and set us on the road to toilet success. However in later endeavours we often find ourselves on our own and so when we decide to go out and take on a new thing we have no idea if what we are learning is entirely good or bad. The only frame of reference we have is in relation to other things we have experienced.


I learnt a lot about cars, motorcycles and engines in general. I disassembled and completely reassembled a mini engine when I was ten years old. Entirely on my own and without adult help. However if I decided to become a doctor that particular frame of reference and way of doing things would be largely irrelevant. Mammalian bodies bear no similarities to internal combustion engines and my mechanics tools would be pretty much useless, except perhaps a ball peen hammer.


So, lets consider fertilisers. At some level most of us realise that plants need nutrients to grow. Not many people seem to know how or why plants grow but, based on life experience we know that growth is fuelled by food and THAT is where it ALL goes to shit and why I have been seeing SO many dead bonsai trees. There is evidence that early farmers were using animal dung as fertiliser on their fields 8000 years ago. It didn’t take us long to figure out the value of ‘shit’.


This has been important. Consider that until 1910 and the perfection of the Haber-Bosch process synthetic nitrogen fertilisers were not available and we were entirely dependant upon organic materials to support our food growing agriculture. That pretty much managed to support a world population of about 1.65 billion. Today we have around 7.5 billion mouths to feed. It is estimated that (in the year 2015) 48 percent of the worlds population is entirely dependant upon synthetic fertilisers to provide their food. This means that in 2015, nitrogen fertilizers supported 3.5 billion people that otherwise would have died. In fact, it’s estimated that nitrogen fertilizer now supports approximately half of the global population. In other words, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch — the pioneers of this technological breakthrough — are estimated to have enabled the lives of several billion people, who otherwise would have died prematurely, or never been born at all. It may be the case that the existence of every second person reading this attributes back to their 20th century innovation.


So, we need to eat in order to grow right? We all know that a lack of food or a lack of correct nutrients will cause us significant developmental and long term health issues. Therefore it’s logical to assume that plants are the same. Whenever I was sick as a kid my wonderful old grandma would cram me full of food. The old wives take about feeding a cold… Turns out that, by and large that’s cobblers. But that’s probably buried deep within the minds of many of our older generation. If you are sick you need feeding because you are lacking something that has caused weakness and resulted in illness. Feasible but bollocks.


By extension we assume that if a plant is not growing it must need feeding. If a plant is off colour it must have a nutrient deficiency. Couple that idea with the fact that, years ago, some crafty bastard coined the phrase “Plant Food” in order to sell more of his fertiliser (by taking advantage of this ignorance) and you quickly end up with a dead bonsai tree.


Plants do NOT eat food. Plants MAKE food.


The base of earths food chain, the organism at the bottom of the pile are plants. Be sure nothing else could survive without plants but plants do not need food in the conventional sense to live, plants MAKE their own food. Mammals ingest complex organic material that are broken down into their chemical constituents in order to be assimilated. That food also has a physical characteristic that is important too. The size of food particles can affect the extent to which nutrients are digested and made ready for absorption. The way in which carbohydrate is absorbed from the bowel depends to some extent on the presence of dietary fibre, even though the fibre itself is not absorbed. This is all fiendishly complicated but it happens inside us all the time without any input from us.


Plants can’t do that, they do not have stomachs, or brains, or nervous systems. Plants do not need ‘food’ in the sense we know it to live. Plants make their food in the form of simple carbohydrates (sugars) from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. The only additional nutrients a plant requires are for the building and maintenance of cells and complex structures that keep the plant upright and functioning. Plants largely but not exclusively absorb these nutrients through their roots which requires nutrients to be dissolved in water. Other nutrients are absorbed through the leaves and these are primarily in gaseous form though some may be absorbed through water entering the stomata or surface of the foliage.


So, how do these chemical nutrients help a plant grow if they do not actually cause growth in the way too many crisps make us fat? Lets take nitrogen as a simple well known example. Most folk in bonsai know (at some level) that nitrogen makes a plant grow, but how? Nitrogen is a major component of chlorophyll (the green stuff) and it is also a major component of amino acids which are the building blocks of protein. Put simply extra green soaks up more sunlight which produces more energy for cell division and having all the components available to create and maintain new cells means more plant, assuming there is enough light and carbon dioxide of course.


Put simply, in order to live plants do require some chemical compounds that enable them to build and maintain their life giving structures. Some of these are freely available, water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Others are possibly less readily available, particularly for plants growing in pots, like bonsai trees. That small amount of soil has a very limited capacity for the support of micro organisms and fungi so valuable in the supply of nutrients. All of these elements need to be kept going by good husbandry and regular applications of a nutrient rich substance we call fertiliser.


How best to achieve this is, by a country mile, the most divisive subject in bonsai. There has been a raging argument in bonsai growing circles for decades as to whether chemical or organic fertilisers are better and whether growing media needs to be organic soil based or inorganic aggregate based. Anyone still bitching about this really is just displaying their ignorance but to be fair the construction and long term maintenance of a vibrant rhizosphere is a complex subject with infinite variables.


I have met no end of folk over the years that grow incredible healthy and vibrant bonsai trees but upon investigation they really have no idea how they achieved success. Other folk work really hard but never seem to make it. Stupidly we might call the former ‘green fingered’ like it’s some form of preordination or luck. However I have found those who are less successful often suffer from a lack of patience, unrealistic goals and information overload coupled with a lack of observational skill and practical long term experience. The trouble is if we get off on the wrong foot at the outset how do we get back in step? Very often the more we learn the further we get from the truth. Even quality information can be detrimental if we lack the skill or knowledge to appropriate it correctly. Compound ignorance is a powerful thing.


My advice is to abandon your bonsai books, online groups, forums etc’. Enjoy those things for the pretty pictures. Buy a book called “The Principles of Horticulture”. Then go and complete an RHS certificate in horticulture. Absorb all that and it’s unlikely anyone would be left with difficult questions in regard to the cultivation of any form of plant. From this starting point it will be a lot easier, more satisfying and rewarding to learn bonsai cultivation from practical experience. It will take a couple of hours to learn to wire properly and about a year to build your speed. Styling of bonsai comes from constant practice and observation of trees in their natural habitat. Throw in a little practice with the carving tools and most folk will be doing pretty well. That’s about five years work. How hard can it be?


Bonsai as a hobby is not something that rewards impatience, it’s not a competitive sport, and it will not feed your need for acceptance by others or reward pride. Anyone suffering from those pernicious traits is largely doomed to failure. Ultimately we do not own bonsai, they own us and remembering that will keep the green eyed monster of envy at bay. So what has that got to do with fertiliser, in case you’ve not already figured it out?


Whether you are using organic or chemical fertilisers the ultimate outcome is the same, both provide chemical nutrients a plant can use to grow. Organics also support microbial activity within the soil, that is, fungi and bacteria that break down the organic compounds into their constituent chemical parts. These organisms have a huge beneficial effect for bonsai trees in their small pots, I have written about that at length in previous posts here. Because the natural breakdown of nutrients from organic compounds happens slowly these types of fertiliser like Green Dream work best simply because every day a small amount of nutrient is released. Plants absorb water pretty much constantly and so there is always enough nutrient, assuming a quality product is used, to meet the plants needs for that day.


Chemicals on the other hand offer a super refined chemical solution that can be absorbed instantly, assuming the plant is taking up water at the time. Chemicals are best applied in the morning when a warm day is in prospect. Applying in the evening or in wet conditions when water uptake is reduced will make them less effective and can have negative effects. Chemicals will not, by and large, support microbial activity and certainly will not introduce or encourage it where an inorganic growing medium is used. Chemical fertilisers have a very short period of availability within the rhizosphere of bonsai. It’s been proven that a chemical fertiliser can be fully dispersed throughout a plant within twelve hours of application. However in bonsai, and in particular, within a poorly constructed or inappropriate growing media, a chemical fertilised may have dispersed within just a day or two leaving pretty much nothing for the plant. Regular watering and a soil unable to hold nutrients (an atomic function) can mean insufficient nutriment is available quite quickly. The old practice of using a balanced chemical fertiliser at half strength once a month will produce a desperately sad and weak tree over time.


The hardest aspect of bonsai for most people to grasp is the time it takes. Today we are all about delivery, getting things done, performing. After thirty years playing this game I can confidently say it is going to take ten years of hard work and deep involvement with plants before the uninitiated even grasps the horticultural basics. Once that’s in place we can make a start. Good quality raw material will take ten years to develop into a passable bonsai here in the UK. Poor material, growing from small stock or starter trees is likely to take even longer. I know of folk that have been growing bonsai for over thirty five years and they have never really even grasped the basics and have little idea what a bonsai tree actually is beyond the trite “ Tree in a tray/pot “ platitude.


Given that fact it’s no wonder we will try every trick imaginable to shorten the process. That in itself is tragic because ‘bonsai’ is not about a goal, there is no finishing line. In my opinion bonsai is a process, there is no finished trees at the end simply because as the years go by we gain a deeper understanding of what is going on and our “finish line” keeps receding into the distance. But because we are intrinsically impatient and the fact that, somewhere along the line a crafty marketing man came up with the term “Plant Food” we put two and two together and get ourselves in a pickle. We all know more food means growth, particularly as we get older, and we know our trees need to grow more and so a logical person will conclude that more food is the way to go. Good for fertiliser manufacturers but very bad for your bonsai. It leads to the utter devastation I referred to at the beginning.


Overuse of chemical fertilisers will result in the death of your bonsai trees! This in NOT an uncommon problem and of late there has been an epidemic. I have  several thousand pounds worth of (other peoples) dead bonsai to prove it and have seen the walking wounded too. The reason why is simple, you learned it in school chemistry.

Osmosis: Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalise the solute concentrations on the two sides.

In other words, two solutions of different strength will seek to combine to become uniform. Too much fertiliser in your soil will basically draw water out of your trees roots in order to achieve this which can result in critical dehydration of the plant. If not corrected the plant will suffer loss of foliage, then ramification, then branches and eventually it will completely die from root desiccation. Best case scenario growth will be severely retarded.


In my opinion stick to organic fertilisers for bonsai, it’s convenient, safe and natural. If you must use chemicals use them for their intended purpose. Only use chemicals as directed and also at the recommended frequency. Don’t use a product designed for hanging baskets for bonsai trees. Don’t use Tomorite for bonsai, that nasty stuff is literally toxic to bonsai of all types it’s just all wrong. Just think about what a tomato plant has to do in a few weeks. Does your bonsai have to do that? Bonsai trees grow long and slow. Flowers, tommys and cannabis have to do a lot in a short time, they burn bright live fast and die young. Trees work on a thousand year time scale. If you can’t cope with that find another hobby.


December 2019